Study of those born in early 1980’s reveals interesting career and life trends

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics has reported that Americans born in the early 1980s held an average of 7.8 jobs from age 18 through age 30. The longitudinal study also reveals their trends in life choices, careers and more.

Individuals held more jobs at younger ages, and the number of jobs held declined as individuals aged. Young adults held an average of 4.6 jobs from ages 18 to 22 compared with 2.2 jobs from ages 27 to 30. While ages 18 to 30, women with more education held more jobs than women with less education. Regardless of education, men held a similar number of jobs.

These findings are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, a nationally representative survey of about 9,000 men and women who were born during the years 1980 to 1984. These respondents were ages 12 to 17 when first interviewed in 1997 and ages 30 to 36 when interviewed for the 17th time in 2015-16. The survey provides information on work and nonwork experiences, training, schooling, income, assets, and other characteristics. The information provided by respondents is representative of all men and women born in the early 1980s and living in the United States when the survey began in 1997.

This release focuses on the educational attainment, employment experiences, and partner status of these individuals from their 18th birthday until they turned 31. Highlights from the longitudinal survey include:

–At their 25th birthday, 28 percent of women had received a bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 21 percent of men. By age 31, almost 36 percent of women held a bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 28 percent of men. Seventy-four percent of women had at least attended some college by age 31 compared with 65 percent of men. (See table 1.)

–These individuals held an average of 7.8 jobs from ages 18 through 30, with over half of these jobs being held between the ages of 18 and 22. (See table 2.)

–Fifty-eight percent of jobs started while ages 18 to 24 ended in less than a year, compared with 33 percent of jobs started while ages 25 to 30. In this older age range, job duration is significantly longer for those with more education. Of jobs started while 25 to 30 years of age, 45 percent of those started by individuals with less than a high school education lasted less than 1 year compared to 27 percent for individuals with a bachelor’s degree and higher. (See table 3.)

–Women with less than a high school diploma were employed an average of 40 percent of weeks from ages 18 to 30, while men with less than a high school diploma were employed 64 percent of weeks. Among individuals with a bachelor’s degree and higher, women were employed an average of 80 percent of weeks, while men were employed 78 percent of weeks. (See table 4.)

–Individuals were employed for an average of 74 percent of weeks from ages 18 to 30. This varied across age brackets: from ages 18 to 22 individuals were employed 68 percent of weeks, from ages 23 to 26 and from ages 27 to 30 individuals were employed 78 percent of weeks. (See table 5.)

–At the time of their 31st birthday, 45 percent of individuals were married, 19 percent were cohabiting, and 37 percent were single. The percent of individuals who were married varied by education; those with higher levels of education were more likely to be married and less likely to be cohabiting than those with lower levels of education. (See table 6.)

–Men who were single at age 31 were employed 70 percent of the weeks from ages 18 to 30, compared with 83 percent for those who were married and 77 percent for those who were cohabiting. The percentage of weeks employed did not vary substantially by partner status for women. (See table 7.)


Educational Attainment at Age 31

At 31 years of age, 32 percent of individuals had received a bachelor’s degree and higher while 38 percent had attended some college or received an associate degree. Twenty-four percent had a high school diploma or General Education Development (GED) credential and no further schooling. (See table 1.)

Women were more likely than men to have received a bachelor’s degree by age 25 and this gap did not significantly decrease by age 31. Twenty-one percent of men had earned a bachelor’s degree by age 25, compared with 28 percent of women. By 31 years of age, 28 percent of men had earned a bachelor’s degree compared to 36 percent of women. In total, 65 percent of men had either attended some college or received a bachelor’s degree, compared with 74 percent of women. In addition to being more likely to attend college, women were more likely to have finished their college degree. Of the 74 percent of women who started college, 48 percent received a bachelor’s degree by age 31. In comparison, of the 65 percent of men who started college, 43 percent had received a bachelor’s degree.

At age 31, there was a large difference in educational attainment among racial and ethnic groups. Non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics or Latinos were more likely than Whites to have dropped out of high school. In comparison, Whites were more likely to have ever attended college (72 percent of Whites, compared to 62 percent of Blacks and 60 percent of Hispanics or Latinos) and nearly twice as likely to have graduated and received a bachelor’s degree by this age. Thirty-six percent of Whites had received a bachelor’s degree at age 31, compared with 19 percent of both Blacks and Hispanics or Latinos. Within each racial and ethnic group examined, women were more likely to have a bachelor’s degree than men. White women were more likely than White men to have received a bachelor’s degree (40 percent versus 32 percent), Black women were more likely than Black men (23 percent versus 14 percent), and Hispanic or Latino women were more likely than Hispanic or Latino men (21 percent versus 17 percent).

Employment Experiences from Age 18 through Age 30

Americans born in 1980-84 held an average of 7.8 jobs from ages 18 through 30, with over half of these jobs held from ages 18 to 22. Men held an average of 7.7 jobs and women held an average of 7.9 jobs. Women at higher levels of educational attainment held more jobs than women at lower levels. Women with a bachelor’s degree held 8.4 jobs from ages 18 through 30, compared with 6.2 jobs for female high school dropouts. Men held a similar number of jobs regardless of their level of educational attainment. Men with a bachelor’s degree held 7.5 jobs from ages 18 through 30, compared to 7.5 jobs for male high school dropouts and 7.6 jobs for high school graduates. (See table 2.) In this news release, a job is defined as a period of work, including gaps, with a particular employer. (See the Technical Note for additional information on the definition of a job.)

Examining employment experiences by smaller age brackets shows individuals held fewer jobs in each subsequent age bracket. Individuals held an average of 4.6 jobs in the 5-year period from ages 18 to 22. The number of jobs individuals held dropped to 2.9 in the 4-year period from ages 23 to 26, and then dropped further to 2.2 in the 4-year period from ages 27 to 30. The pattern of individuals holding fewer jobs as they aged was similar across all sexes, racial and ethnic groups, and levels of educational attainment.


Duration of Employment Relationships

The length of time a worker remains with an employer increased with the age at which the worker began the job. Of the jobs that workers began when they were 18 to 24 years of age, 58 percent of those jobs ended in less than a year and 91 percent ended in less than 6 years. Among jobs started by 25 to 30 year olds, 33 percent ended in less than a year, and 61 percent ended in less than 6 years. Job duration is also related to education. Sixty-five percent of jobs started by high school dropouts while age 18 to 24 ended within a year, compared to 55 percent of jobs started by those with a bachelor’s degree. (See table 3.)

Percent of Weeks Employed, Unemployed, and Not in the Labor Force

Men were more active in the labor market than women from ages 18 to 30. As a whole, they spent less time not in the labor force than women (16 percent versus 23 percent) and more time employed (77 percent versus 71 percent). This relationship held at all levels of educational attainment except among those with a bachelor’s degree. Women with a bachelor’s degree and higher spent a larger proportion of weeks employed than did similarly educated men (80 percent versus 78 percent) and less time not in the labor force (17 percent versus 19 percent).

Employment gaps existed between racial and ethnic groups. On average, Whites were employed during 77 percent of the weeks that occurred from age 18 through age 30, Hispanics or Latinos were employed during 73 percent of the weeks, and Blacks were employed during 64 percent of the weeks.

The employment gap between Whites and Blacks is more pronounced at lower levels of educational attainment. White high school dropouts spent 57 percent of weeks employed from ages 18 through 30, while Black dropouts spent 38 percent of weeks employed during these ages. The gap is smaller among those who held a bachelor’s degree. White college graduates spent 80 percent of weeks employed, while Black college graduates spent 77 percent of weeks employed.

The employment gap between Hispanics or Latinos and Blacks is also more pronounced at lower levels of educational attainment. Hispanic or Latino dropouts spent 59 percent of weeks employed from ages 18 through 30, while Black dropouts spent 38 percent of weeks employed during these ages. Hispanic or Latino and Black college graduates spent a similar percentage of weeks employed (78 percent versus 77 percent).

Individuals spent 68 percent of weeks employed from ages 18 to 22, 78 percent of weeks employed from ages 23 to 26, and 78 percent of weeks employed from ages 27 to 30. Men spent a higher percentage of weeks employed in each subsequent age bracket, but this was not the case for women. Men spent 69 percent of weeks employed from ages 18 to 22; this increased to 81 percent of weeks from ages 23 to 26 and held nearly constant at 82 percent from ages 27 to 30. Women spent 67 percent of weeks employed from ages 18 to 22; this increased to 75 percent of weeks from ages 23 to 26, but decreased slightly to 73 percent from ages 27 to 30. Men were employed a higher percentage of weeks than women within all age brackets. (See table 5.)

The employment gap between racial and ethnic groups also existed within each age bracket analyzed. Within all age brackets, Whites were employed a higher percentage of weeks than both Blacks and Hispanics or Latinos, and Hispanics or Latinos were employed a higher percentage of weeks than Blacks.

As these individuals aged, men spent less time out of the labor force. Men spent 24 percent of weeks not in the labor force from 18 to 22 years of age, 12 percent of weeks from ages 23 to 26, and 11 percent from ages 27 to 30. Women had a similar but less pronounced trend, spending 27 percent of weeks out of the labor force from ages 18 to 22, but 20 percent and 21 percent of weeks out of the labor force at ages 23 to 26 and ages 27 to 30, respectively. At older ages, women were nearly twice as likely as men to not be in the labor force.

Partner Status and Employment Experiences

At 25 years of age, 27 percent of Americans born during 1980-84 were married, 21 percent were unmarried and living with a partner, and 53 percent were single, that is, not married and not living with a partner. Comparatively, at 31 years of age, 45 percent were married, 19 percent were cohabiting, and 37 percent were single. (See table 6.)

At age 31, those with higher levels of education were more likely to be married and less likely to be cohabiting than those with lower levels of education. At the time of their 31st birthday, 34 percent of high school dropouts, 40 percent of high school graduates with no college, 43 percent of individuals with some college or an associate degree, and 54 percent of college graduates were married. Twenty-nine percent of those with less than a high school degree were cohabiting, compared with only 13 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree and higher.

Partner status varied greatly by race and ethnicity. Blacks were more likely to be single than either Whites or Hispanics or Latinos. At 31 years of age, 58 percent of Blacks were single, compared with 31 percent of Whites and 37 percent of Hispanics or Latinos. Blacks were also significantly less likely to be married than either Whites or Hispanics or Latinos (25 percent versus 51 percent and 41 percent, respectively).

At both ages 25 and 31, women were significantly more likely to be married and less likely to be single than men. At age 31, 49 percent of women were married, 32 percent were single, and 18 percent were cohabiting, while 41 percent of men were married, 41 percent were single, and 19 percent were cohabiting. Women were also more likely to be married than men at each level of educational attainment.

Compared with individuals who were single at age 31, those who were married worked more weeks from ages 18 to 30, spent fewer weeks unemployed, and spent fewer weeks not in the labor force. From ages 18 to 30, single individuals spent 70 percent of weeks employed, 8 percent of weeks unemployed, and 22 percent of weeks not in the labor force, while those who were married spent 78 percent of weeks employed, 4 percent of weeks unemployed, and 18 percent of weeks not in the labor force. Cohabiting individuals spent 74 percent of weeks employed, 8 percent of weeks unemployed, and 19 percent of weeks not in the labor force. (See table 7.)

Men accounted for most of the variation in employment experiences by partner status. Married men worked more weeks, were unemployed fewer weeks, and were less likely to be not in the labor force than either single or cohabiting men. Married men spent 83 percent of weeks employed, compared with 70 percent for single men and 77 percent for cohabiting men. They spent less than 5 percent of weeks unemployed, compared with 8 percent for single men and 9 percent for cohabiting men. Married men spent 12 percent of weeks out of the labor force, compared with 21 percent for single men and 15 percent for cohabiting men. In contrast, there were limited differences in the employment experiences of women by partner status. Married women were slightly more likely to be employed than non-married women (73 percent versus 70 percent for both single and cohabiting women) and were less likely to be unemployed than either single or cohabiting women (4 percent versus 8 percent and 7 percent, respectively).

Married individuals also worked more weeks than single individuals when comparing within racial and ethnic groups. Married Whites spent a higher percentage of weeks employed than single Whites (79 percent versus 74 percent), married Blacks spent a higher percentage of weeks employed than single Blacks (71 percent versus 62 percent), and married Hispanics or Latinos spent a higher percentage of weeks employed than single Hispanics or Latinos (76 percent versus 71 percent).

Tables and Data

Table 1. Highest grade completed by young adults at ages 25 and 31 in 2005-15 by sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity                                                                   
                                                                                               
(Percent distribution)                                                                         
                                                Educational Attainment                         
                                         High School Graduates                 College         
                                                      General                                  
     Characteristic         High            High     Educational                     Bachelor's
                           school          school    Development              Some   degree and
                          dropouts  Total  diploma (GED) recipients  Total  college  higher (1)
                                                                                               
Total, age 25 in 2005-2009  9.1     26.1    18.6        7.5           63.6    39.0      24.7   
 White, non-Hispanic .....  7.5     26.1    19.3        6.8           66.3    37.0      29.2   
 Black, non-Hispanic ..... 13.5     31.2    20.0       11.3           54.7    42.5      12.2   
 Hispanic or Latino ...... 13.4     30.9    23.7        7.2           55.2    43.5      11.7   
                                                                                               
Men ......................  9.6     30.9    22.0        8.9           59.3    38.2      21.1   
 White, non-Hispanic .....  7.8     29.8    22.1        7.7           62.3    36.7      25.6   
 Black, non-Hispanic ..... 14.9     37.7    22.6       15.1           46.7    38.0       8.8   
 Hispanic or Latino ...... 13.9     34.0    25.1        8.9           51.9    42.6       9.3   
                                                                                               
Women ....................  8.7     23.0    16.9        6.0           68.1    39.7      28.3   
 White, non-Hispanic .....  7.1     22.4    16.5        6.0           70.2    37.4      32.8   
 Black, non-Hispanic ..... 12.2     24.9    17.4        7.5           62.6    47.0      15.6   
 Hispanic or Latino ...... 13.0     27.4    22.1        5.4           59.0    44.5      14.5   
                                                                                               
Total, age 31 in 2011-2015  7.1     23.5    16.1        7.4           69.3    37.7      31.6   
 White, non-Hispanic .....  6.0     22.4    16.3        6.2           71.5    35.5      36.0   
 Black, non-Hispanic .....  9.6     27.6    15.9       11.7           62.2    43.6      18.6   
 Hispanic or Latino ...... 11.0     28.6    19.5        9.1           60.0    41.3      18.8   
                                                                                               
Men ......................  7.7     27.5    18.4        9.1           64.6    36.7      27.9   
 White, non-Hispanic .....  6.5     26.2    19.0        7.2           67.2    35.2      32.0   
 Black, non-Hispanic ..... 11.2     35.0    18.3       16.7           53.2    39.0      14.2   
 Hispanic or Latino ...... 11.9     31.0    20.3       10.6           56.7    40.0      16.7   
                                                                                               
Women ....................  6.4     19.3    13.7        5.6           74.2    38.7      35.5   
 White, non-Hispanic .....  5.5     18.5    13.4        5.1           75.9    35.7      40.2   
 Black, non-Hispanic .....  8.0     20.1    13.4        6.6           71.3    48.3      23.0   
 Hispanic or Latino ......  9.9     25.9    18.6        7.3           63.9    42.7      21.1   
                                                                                               
   1  Includes individuals with bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and professional degrees.
   NOTE: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of individuals who were 
ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually
exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are
not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently
large to provide statistically reliable estimates. Educational attainment is determined during
the month of the respondent's 25th or 31st birthday.



Table 2. Number of jobs held by individuals from age 18 through age 30 in 1998-2015 by educational attainment,
sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and age                                                              
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
                                                                   Average number of jobs for persons         
                                                                       ages 18 to 30 in 1998-2015 (1)         
            Characteristic                                                                                    
                                                                          Ages 18       Ages 23       Ages 27 
                                                           Total (2)       to 22         to 26         to 30  
                                                                                                              
Total, ages 18 to 30 in 1998-2015 .....................       7.8           4.6           2.9           2.2   
  Less than a high school diploma  ....................       6.9           3.9           2.5           1.8   
  High school graduates, no college (3) ...............       7.3           4.4           2.7           2.0   
  Some college or associate degree ....................       8.0           4.7           3.0           2.2   
  Bachelor's degree and higher (4) ...................        8.0           4.7           3.2           2.3   
                                                                                                              
Men ...................................................       7.7           4.4           2.9           2.2   
  Less than a high school diploma  ....................       7.5           4.4           2.8           2.0   
  High school graduates, no college (3) ...............       7.6           4.5           2.9           2.1   
  Some college or associate degree ....................       7.9           4.5           2.9           2.3   
  Bachelor's degree and higher (4) ...................        7.5           4.2           3.0           2.3   
                                                                                                              
Women .................................................       7.9           4.7           2.9           2.1   
  Less than a high school diploma  ....................       6.2           3.4           2.2           1.6   
  High school graduates, no college (3) ...............       6.8           4.2           2.5           1.8   
  Some college or associate degree ....................       8.1           4.9           3.0           2.1   
  Bachelor's degree and higher (4) ...................        8.4           5.0           3.3           2.4   
                                                                                                              
White, non-Hispanic ...................................       8.0           4.8           3.0           2.2   
  Less than a high school diploma  ....................       7.7           4.5           2.7           1.9   
  High school graduates, no college (3) ...............       7.4           4.6           2.7           2.0   
  Some college or associate degree ....................       8.2           4.9           3.0           2.2   
  Bachelor's degree and higher (4) ...................        8.2           4.8           3.2           2.3   
                                                                                                              
Black, non-Hispanic ...................................       7.4           4.1           2.9           2.1   
  Less than a high school diploma  ....................       5.3           2.8           2.1           1.4   
  High school graduates, no college (3) ...............       6.9           4.0           2.6           1.8   
  Some college or associate degree ....................       8.1           4.4           3.1           2.3   
  Bachelor's degree and higher (4) ....................       7.7           4.3           3.0           2.4   
                                                                                                              
Hispanic or Latino ....................................       7.0           4.1           2.7           2.0   
  Less than a high school diploma  ....................       6.7           3.7           2.5           2.0   
  High school graduates, no college (3) ...............       6.9           3.9           2.7           2.0   
  Some college or associate degree ....................       7.1           4.2           2.7           2.0   
  Bachelor's degree and higher (4) ....................       7.2           4.1           2.9           2.1   
                                                                                                              
   1 Time span includes up to the month before the respondent's 31st birthday.
   2 Jobs that were held in more than one of the age categories were counted in each appropriate column, but
only once in the total column.
   3 Includes individuals with a high school diploma or equivalent (General Education Development (GED))
credential.
   4 Includes individuals with bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and professional degrees.
NOTE: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of individuals who were ages 12 to 16 on
December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.
Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their
representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates.
Educational attainment is determined during the month of the respondent's 31st birthday.



Table 3. Duration of employment relationship with a single employer for all jobs started from age 18 through age 30 
in 1998-2015 by age at start of job, educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity            
                                                                                                                    
                                                        Cumulative percent distribution of duration of              
                                                               completed employment relationships                   
                                                                                                                    
         Characteristic                                                                                             
                                                                                                        Percent of  
                                           Less than   Less than   Less than   Less than   Less than   jobs ongoing 
                                           1 year      2 years     3 years     6 years     12 years      at age 31  
                                                                                                                    
Total, ages 18 to 24 in 1998-2009 .......     57.7       74.2        81.7        90.7        93.8           6.1     
 Men ....................................     57.3       73.4        80.9        89.8	     93.1           6.8     
 Women ..................................     58.2       75.1        82.6        91.7	     94.6           5.4     
 White, non-Hispanic ....................     57.1       73.5        81.1        90.3        93.7           6.3     
 Black, non-Hispanic ....................     62.5       78.5        85.3        92.6        94.9           5.0     
 Hispanic or Latino .....................     55.3       72.6        80.3        89.9        92.9           6.9     
 Less than a high school diploma ........     64.9       80.2        85.4        92.1        95.3           4.6     
 High school graduates, no college (1) ..     57.2       73.0        80.2        89.0        93.1           6.8     
 Some college or associate degree .......     58.9       75.2        82.4        91.0        94.0           5.9     
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .......     55.3       72.6        81.2        91.2        93.8           6.1     
                                                                                                                    
Total, ages 25 to 30 in 2005-2015 .......     32.8       46.5        53.1        61.4        61.6          38.4     
 Men ....................................     31.4       44.5        50.7        59.0        59.2          40.8     
 Women ..................................     34.3       48.5        55.6        64.0        64.0          36.0     
 White, non-Hispanic ....................     32.4       45.5        52.0        60.6        60.8          39.2     
 Black, non-Hispanic ....................     36.9       51.5        58.5        65.9        65.9          34.1     
 Hispanic or Latino .....................     30.6       45.8        52.9        61.0        61.4          38.6     
 Less than a high school diploma ........     45.2       58.9        65.1        73.1        73.2          26.8     
 High school graduates, no college (1) ..     33.7       47.7        53.6        61.8        62.0          38.0     
 Some college or associate degree .......     34.9       49.0        55.3        63.6        63.8          36.2     
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .......     27.2       40.2        47.7        56.2        56.3          43.7     
                                                                                                                    
   1 Includes individuals with a high school diploma or equivalent (General Education Development (GED))
credential.
   2 Includes individuals with bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and professional degrees.
   NOTE: This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 31 when interviewed in 2015-16. The National 
Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race
and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race groups, which are
included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not
sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates. Educational attainment is determined during the
month of the respondent's 31st birthday.



Table 4. Percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed, or not in the labor
force from age 18 through age 30 in 1998-2015 by educational attainment, sex, race, 
and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity"                                                   
                                                                                    
                                                Percent of total weeks while ages   
                                                       18 to 30 in 1998-2015        
           Characteristic                                                           
                                                                                    
                                                                             Not in 
                                                                             labor  
                                                 Employed    Unemployed      force  
                                                                                    
Total, ages 18 to 30 in 1998-2015 ...........      74.2          6.2          19.6  
 Less than a high school diploma ............      53.2         12.0          34.8  
 High school graduates, no college (1) ......      71.0          8.3          20.7  
 Some college or associate degree ...........      75.7          6.6          17.7  
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ...........      79.4          3.0          17.7  
                                                                                    
Men .........................................      76.8          6.8          16.4  
 Less than a high school diploma ............      63.5         13.0          23.5  
 High school graduates, no college (1) ......      75.5          8.9          15.6  
 Some college or associate degree ...........      79.4          6.7          13.9  
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ...........      78.4          3.1          18.5  
                                                                                    
Women .......................................      71.4          5.6          23.0  
 Less than a high school diploma ............      40.3         10.6          49.1  
 High school graduates, no college (1) ......      64.4          7.4          28.2  
 Some college or associate degree ...........      72.0          6.5          21.5  
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ...........      80.1          2.9          17.0  
                                                                                    
White, non-Hispanic .........................      76.8          5.1          18.1  
 Less than a high school diploma ............      57.4         11.2          31.5  
 High school graduates, no college (1) ......      75.4          7.0          17.6  
 Some college or associate degree ...........      77.5          5.4          17.1  
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ...........      80.3          2.6          17.2  
                                                                                    
Black, non-Hispanic .........................      64.2         11.0          24.8  
 Less than a high school diploma ............      38.2         16.6          45.2  
 High school graduates, no college (1) ......      58.6         12.3          29.1  
 Some college or associate degree ...........      68.0         11.5          20.5  
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ...........      77.1          5.1          17.9  
                                                                                    
Hispanic or Latino ..........................      73.1          6.6          20.3  
 Less than a high school diploma ............      58.8          9.3          31.9  
 High school graduates, no college (1) ......      69.2          8.5          22.2  
 Some college or associate degree ...........      77.2          5.6          17.2  
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ...........      78.3          4.3          17.4  

   1 Includes individuals with a high school diploma or equivalent (General
Education Development (GED)) credential.
   2 Includes individuals with bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and professional
degrees.
   NOTE: This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 31 when
interviewed in 2015-16. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of
young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race
groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because
their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide
statistically reliable estimates. Educational attainment is determined during the
month of the respondent's 31st birthday.



Table 5. Percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed, or not in the labor
force from age 18 through age 30 in 1998-2015 by age, educational attainment, sex,
race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity                                                    
                                                                                    
                                                          Percent of total weeks    
                                                                                    
           Age and characteristic                                                   
                                                                                    
                                                                              Not in
                                                                               labor
                                                    Employed    Unemployed     force
                                                                                    
Total, ages 18 to 30 in 1998-2015 ...............      74.2         6.2         19.6
 Ages 18 to 22 in 1998-2007 .....................      68.1         6.4         25.5
 Ages 23 to 26 in 2003-2011 .....................      78.1         5.8         16.1
 Ages 27 to 30 in 2007-2015 .....................      77.8         6.5         15.7
                                                                                    
Men, ages 18 to 30 in 1998-2015 .................      76.8         6.8         16.4
 Ages 18 to 22 in 1998-2007 .....................      68.9         7.0         24.1
 Ages 23 to 26 in 2003-2011 .....................      81.2         6.4         12.4
 Ages 27 to 30 in 2007-2015 .....................      82.3         7.0         10.8
                                                                                    
Women, ages 18 to 30 in 1998-2015 ...............      71.4         5.6         23.0
 Ages 18 to 22 in 1998-2007 .....................      67.3         5.8         26.9
 Ages 23 to 26 in 2003-2011 .....................      74.8         5.2         20.0
 Ages 27 to 30 in 2007-2015 .....................      73.2         6.0         20.9
                                                                                    
White, non-Hispanic, ages 18 to 30 in 1998-2015 .      76.8         5.1         18.1
 Ages 18 to 22 in 1998-2007 .....................      71.4         5.2         23.4
 Ages 23 to 26 in 2003-2011 .....................      80.3         4.9         14.7
 Ages 27 to 30 in 2007-2015 .....................      80.0         5.2         14.7
                                                                                    
Black, non-Hispanic, ages 18 to 30 in 1998-2015 .      64.2        11.0         24.8
 Ages 18 to 22 in 1998-2007 .....................      56.7        11.1         32.2
 Ages 23 to 26 in 2003-2011 .....................      69.2        10.0         20.8
 Ages 27 to 30 in 2007-2015 .....................      68.6        12.1         19.3
                                                                                    
Hispanic or Latino, ages 18 to 30 in 1998-2015 ..      73.1         6.6         20.3
 Ages 18 to 22 in 1998-2007 .....................      67.2         7.3         25.5
 Ages 23 to 26 in 2003-2011 .....................      77.4         5.8         16.8
 Ages 27 to 30 in 2007-2015 .....................      76.0         6.5         17.5

   NOTE: This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 31 when
interviewed in 2015-16. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of
young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race
groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because
their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide
statistically reliable estimates.



Table 6. Partner status at age 25 and age 31 by educational attainment, sex, race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
                                                                                                                  
                                                                          Percent of individuals                  
                                                                                                                  
                                                            Age 25 in 2005-2009            Age 31 in 2011-2015 	  
                                                                                                                  
             Characteristic                          Single  Married  Cohabiting   Single  Married    Cohabiting  
                                                                                                                  
Total .........................................       52.6    27.0       20.5       36.6       45.0      18.5     
 Less than a high school diploma ..............       46.4    25.0       28.7       37.6       33.5      29.0     
 High school graduates, no college (1) ........       46.4    28.9       24.8       38.5       39.6      21.9     
 Some college or associate degree .............       52.7    29.0       18.3       38.0       43.0      19.0     
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .............       61.5    22.4       16.2       33.2       53.8      13.0     
                                                                                                                  
Men ...........................................       59.6    21.9       18.5       40.5       40.9      18.6     
 Less than a high school diploma ..............       53.9    20.6       25.5       37.6       34.4      28.0     
 High school graduates, no college (2) ........       52.6    23.7       23.7       42.5       35.9      21.6     
 Some college or associate degree .............       60.8    23.4       15.8       42.6       39.1      18.4     
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .............       70.3    17.2       12.6       36.6       50.1      13.3     
                                                                                                                  
Women .........................................       45.5    32.1       22.5       32.4       49.2      18.4     
 Less than a high school diploma ..............       37.9    29.9       32.2       37.5       32.2      30.3     
 High school graduates, no college (1) ........       37.8    35.9       26.3       32.5       45.1      22.4     
 Some college or associate degree .............       44.9    34.4       20.7       33.5       46.9      19.6     
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .............       54.8    26.3       18.9       30.4       56.8      12.8     
                                                                                                                  
White, non-Hispanic ...........................       48.8    30.3       20.9       30.8       50.9      18.3     
 Less than a high school diploma ..............       37.9    33.1       29.0       31.0       37.9      31.1     
 High school graduates, no college (1) ........       41.0    32.6       26.4       31.9       44.7      23.4     
 Some college or associate degree .............       48.6    33.0       18.5       32.4       48.7      18.9     
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .............       58.9    24.2       17.0       28.6       59.1      12.3     
                                                                                                                  
Black, non-Hispanic ...........................       68.6    12.8       18.6       57.7       25.3      17.0     
 Less than a high school diploma ..............       73.0     6.0       21.1       55.4       21.4      23.2     
 High school graduates, no college (1) ........       67.4    11.9       20.6       62.1       21.6      16.3     
 Some college or associate degree .............       66.8    14.9       18.4       55.8       25.0      19.2     
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .............       72.9    15.2       11.9       56.9       33.5       9.7     
                                                                                                                  
Hispanic or Latino ............................       48.7    30.0       21.2       37.4       41.0      21.6     
 Less than a high school diploma ..............       38.2    24.8       37.0       35.7       33.3      31.0     
 High school graduates, no college (1) ........       43.2    34.2       22.6       37.2       39.5      23.3     
 Some college or associate degree .............       52.3    30.1       17.6       38.7       41.6      19.7     
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .............       62.2    24.7       13.1       35.7       46.7      17.6     
                                                                                                                  
   1 Includes individuals with a high school diploma or equivalent (General Education Development (GED))
credential.
   2 Includes individuals with bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and professional degrees."
   NOTE: This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 31 when interviewed in 2015-16. The National
Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996.
Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race groups, which
are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is
not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates. Educational attainment and partner status are
determined during the month of the respondent's 25th or 31st birthday.



Table 7. Percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force from age 18 through age 30 in
1998-2015 by partner status, educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity                        
                                                                                                                        
                                                              Percent total weeks while ages 18 to 30 in 1998-2015      
                                                                                                                        
            Characteristic                                                                                              
                                                    Single                     Married                     Cohabiting   
                                                                                                                        
                                                   Unemp-  Not in            Unemp-  Not in             Unemp-   Not in 
                                         Employed  ployed   labor  Employed  ployed   labor  Employed   ployed    labor 
                                                            force                     force                       force 
                                                                                                                        
Total, ages 18 to 30 in 1998-2015 .......  70.3      8.0     21.7    77.6      4.2     18.2    73.5       7.7      18.8 
 Less than a high school diploma ........  46.6     13.2     40.2    58.6     10.5     30.9    55.7      12.0      32.3 
 High school graduates, no college (1) ..  65.9     10.2     23.9    74.9      6.1     19.0    73.0       9.0      18.0 
 Some college or associate degree .......  72.3      8.6     19.1    78.8      4.3     16.9    75.2       7.9      16.9 
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .......  77.3      3.9     18.8    80.5      2.2     17.2    79.7       3.7      16.6 
                                                                                                                        
Men .....................................  70.3      8.4     21.3     83.3     4.5     12.2     76.7      8.5      14.8 
 Less than a high school diploma ........  52.7     14.3     33.1     71.5    11.5      7.1     68.1     13.4      18.5 
 High school graduates, no college (1) ..  67.2     10.7     22.1     85.0     6.4      8.6     76.0      9.7      14.3 
 Some college or associate degree .......  73.2      8.4     18.4     86.2     4.2      9.6     79.2      8.3      12.5 
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .......  74.6      4.0     21.4     81.2     2.3     16.5     78.4      3.9      17.6 
                                                                                                                        
Women ...................................  70.2      7.5     22.3     72.7     4.0     23.4     70.0      7.0      23.0 
 Less than a high school diploma ........  38.9     11.9     49.2     41.1     9.3     49.6     41.3     10.4      48.3 
 High school graduates, no college (1) ..  63.4      9.2     27.5     62.9     5.8     31.3     68.8      7.9      23.3 
 Some college or associate degree .......  71.2      8.8     20.0     72.7     4.4     22.9     71.5      7.6      20.8 
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .......  79.9      3.9     16.2     80.1     2.2     17.7     80.9      3.5      15.7 
                                                                                                                        
White, non-Hispanic .....................  73.9      6.4     19.7     78.9     3.6     17.5     75.7      7.2      17.1 
 Less than a high school diploma ........  51.2     10.9     37.9     61.0    10.9     28.0     59.0     11.8      29.2 
 High school graduates, no college (1) ..  72.5      8.8     18.8     76.9     5.2     17.9     76.3      8.3      15.4 
 Some college or associate degree .......  73.9      7.0     19.1     80.2     3.6     16.3     76.6      7.6      15.8 
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .......  79.0      3.3     17.7     80.8     2.0     17.2     80.7      3.4      15.8 
                                                                                                                        
Black, non-Hispanic .....................  61.6     11.9     26.5     70.5     8.6     20.9     63.5     11.6      24.9 
 Less than a high school diploma ........  35.5     18.6     45.9     39.6    13.6     46.8     43.3     14.6      42.1 
 High school graduates, no college (1) ..  54.4     12.3     33.3     69.2    11.5     19.3     60.5     13.2      26.3 
 Some college or associate degree .......  66.8     12.6     20.6     71.2     9.1     19.6     67.0     11.7      21.4 
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .......  74.5      6.3     19.2     80.6     3.4     16.0     79.7      3.8      16.5 
                                                                                                                        
Hispanic or Latino ......................  70.9      8.5     20.6     75.5     4.8     19.7     72.2      6.8      21.0 
 Less than a high school diploma ........  55.2     10.9     33.9     62.8     7.2     30.0     58.5      9.7      31.7 
 High school graduates, no college (1) ..  65.8     11.0     23.2     71.2     7.0     21.8     71.2      7.3      21.5 
 Some college or associate degree .......  76.3      7.2     16.5     78.2     4.0     17.8     76.6      6.0      17.4 
 Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .......  75.2      6.1     18.6     81.1     2.7     16.2     77.1      4.8      18.1 

   1 Includes individuals with a high school diploma or equivalent (General Education Development (GED)) credential.
   2 Includes individuals with bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and professional degrees"
   NOTE: This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 31 when interviewed in 2015-16. The National
Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race groups, which are included in
the overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large
to provide statistically reliable estimates. Educational attainment and partner status are determined during the month
of the respondent's 31st birthday.
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